Saturday, February 22, 2020

Chronic fatigue syndrome, mitochondrial dysregulation and oxidative Essay

Chronic fatigue syndrome, mitochondrial dysregulation and oxidative stress - Essay Example Its treatment also is through suppression of the symptoms (Myhill 2014). The onset of symptoms of this disorder occurs at the age of early 20s to mid-40s, with a higher group reporting the onset of their symptoms at their early 30s. They can also occur in children aged between 13 and 15 years. Anyone is prone to this syndrome no matter the sex. However, it appears that females are more prone and have a greater chance of ailing this disease; 60-70% are female. The ratio of females to males suffering CFS is 3:1. In the UK, some research reports indicated that the illness was present in 0.5-2% of the population; this estimates about 250000 people in the UK with chronic fatigue syndrome (Thew & Mckenna 2009). Mitochondrial dysregulation is the impairment of the mitochondrial physiological processes (Lalsh, 1993). As we know, the role of mitochondria in the cells of the human body is to provide energy for the body that helps humans to do work. Once these regulatory processes are interfered with, the process of energy manufacturing is also affected: there may be less energy produced or more or imbalanced regarding the time that it is needed. It may be related to chronic fatigue syndrome in the sense that, it may be a causative agent. Lack of enough energy that the body needs is what makes one feel tired hence fatigued (Lalsh, 1993). Therefore, those having chronic fatigue syndrome are likely to have mitochondrial dysfunction. Oxidative stress can be described as the constant imbalance between the manufacturing of the reactive oxygen species, also known as the free radicals and their neutralisation by the antioxidants. The unstable nature of the reactive oxygen species makes them very react ive and renders them the ability to cause great cell damage through breaks and DNA mutation (Shankar & Srivastava, 2012). This phenomenon often leads to irreparable cellular damage. The mitochondrial respiratory cycle plays an

Wednesday, February 5, 2020

Classroom Tardiness Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Classroom Tardiness - Essay Example It is a relatively common understanding that youths, today, tend to congregate outside of various classrooms to discuss personal elements of their lifestyles which create social connection between the youth groups. However, through this type of discussion and other personal distractions, tardy pupils continue to cause disruption to normal, routine class activities when teachers are forced to deal with tardy pupils and reprimand these students for their inappropriate actions. These delays can take away from quality, group classwork activities. This research proposal offers a study to identify whether teachers themselves, through the use of mobile communications technologies, can reduce tardiness in different classroom environments. This study aims to identify whether through the use of mobile communications technologies, teachers can interact regarding classroom tardiness, thus projecting authoritarianism and unity into the classroom and promoting student adherence to classroom tardiness guidelines. Measure student reactions to routine mobile-to-mobile teacher conversations to measure whether tardiness ratios, through authoritarianism and the mobile device, can be reduced in a typical classroom environment. Weismann and Foerch (2008) offer a unique perspective about educators: Many teachers do not offer students consistent penalties for being late, such as projecting an authoritarian attitude regarding all classroom credits being lost for tardiness. This allows for the leniency to be abused and students simply will not adhere to these rules. It is, again, a relatively common understanding in society that, through proper discipline, children can learn to respect authority and are often intimidated by authoritarian adults. Strict adherence to rules of tardiness would create this rigid atmosphere where actual grades lost become an outcome of disobeying these rules. This would require much more effort on behalf of the teacher. The idea of

Tuesday, January 28, 2020

Problem Answer to Law of Evidence Question

Problem Answer to Law of Evidence Question In this coursework I have paid particular attention on the Youth Justice and Criminal Evidence Act 1999(YJCEA) , Criminal Justice Act 2003 , Code D of PACE 1984 Code of Practice and cases such as Turnbull [1977] , R v Hanson [2005] , R v Vye [1993] and other relevant cases in order to solve this problem question based on criminal proceedings and interpret the statutes , the general rule and exceptions of hearsay evidence ,apply the case laws and critically evaluate and analyses them. In this given set of facts we need to discuss and apply the legal rules of evidence in the context of criminal proceedings specifically witness competence compellability, good character bad character, general rules of hearsay evidence and its exceptions with the proper application of Youth Justice and Criminal Evidence Act 1999 ( YJCEA) and Criminal Justice Act 2003 and relevant cases , journals , articles . According to the facts Thomas is only 11 years old who saw two men putting electrical equipment into the boot of a white van. He along with Harry Jones identified Adam King as one of the men they saw at a video identification procedure .Now we need to focus on mainly whether Thomas is really competent to give evidence and even if he can, what type of evidence he will provide .As a child under 14 Thomas must give unsworn evidence.[1] In this essence the test for sworn testimony is set out in R v Hayes[2] which is unnecessary in this scenario .However, in R v MacPherson[3] the Court of Appeal held that a 5 years old child is competent in giving witness .Moreover, the evidence of children under 14 is to be given unsworn and that a child’s evidence must be revived unless it appears to the court that the child is incapable of understanding questions put to him and unable to give answers which can be understood.[4]The court must decide not whether he is competent on grounds of age b ut whether he is capable of giving intelligible evidence .It is submitted that a normal 11 years old child would be .The witnesses credibility and reliability are relevant to the weight to be given to his evidence and might well from the basis of a submission of no case to answer but they are not relevant to competence [5] . In delivering the judgment of the Court of Appeal in R v Sed[6] Auld LJ pointed out that section 53 does not expressly provide for 100% comprehension and in this case the Court of Appeal was much influenced by the earlier decision in R v D .[7]Allowance should be made on the witness’s performance .In this fact it may vary according to the subject matter of the questions, on the length of time between the events referred to by the witness and the date of the questioning and on any strong feelings that those events may have caused [8] as to whether Thomas is really competent to give evidence or not .Moreover according to the statute there is no minimum age for children’s to give evidence.[9] In this fact, Thomas’s parents informed the CPS that Thomas is nervous about giving evidence in court .In relation with this there is a possibility to use of Special Measures like to use screens[10], live link [11] , video recorded evidence in chief [12] , evidence to be given in private [13] by the prosecution.In this case the court can interview the child witness[14] and it could be a video interview if necessary [15] .It may be considered that Thomas might encounter special difficulty in testifying .Under section 16 (1) (b) and section 16 (2) of the YJCEA 1999[16] may give evidence by means such as live video link or pre – recording . In R ( On the application of D ) v Camberwell Green Youth Court [17] the Divisional Court held that special measures provisions , here involving children , were compatible with article 6 ( 3 ) ( a ) of European Convention of Human Rights [18] which embodies the defendant’s right ‘ to examine or have examined witnesses again st him’ .As person under 18 Thomas may also be eligible for special Measures Directions .Under section 21 ( 1 ) ( a ) of the Youth Justice Act and Criminal Evidence Act 1999(YJCEA)[19] as amended by the Coroners and Justice Act 2009 , the primary rule in requiring admission of a video interview as examination in chief and cross examination through a live link or video link [20]at trial , applies to all witnesses under 18 , regardless of the nature of the offence . However , under section 21 if the court determines that under the primary rule special measures would minimize the quality of the witness’s evidence then court can consider a screen which will be open for Thomas to elect to give oral evidence in chief or testify in the courtroom rather than using the live link or pre recorded police video [21].Under section 21 (4C) of YJCEA 1999 the court will consider some factors [22].Although Thomas is not in an age where he might be expected to be able to give live testim ony as he is nervous in giving evidence in court according to the facts but he may be accompanied by an adult to provide support for example his mother who have no personal involvement in this case . Now we need to assess the admissibility of the identification evidence against George Smith .It mainly deals with Code D of PACE 1984 Codes of Practice.[23]Breaches of Code D sometimes can result in the exclusion of identification evidence under s.78 (1) of PACE. Because failure to comply with the provision in CODE D can affect the reliability of the evidence and reliability is an important consideration in the application of s.78(1).An important case on the consequences of non-compliance with the provisions of Code D is R vGorja (Ranjit)[24].Moreover if Code D do not justify the exclusion of identification evidence, they may require appropriate warnings to be given to the jury [25] .In order to avoid mistaken identification of a defendant by prosecution witnesses the Court of Appeal recommended a new approach by trial judges to deal with the problems of identification in Turnbull[26].The directions in this case only apply whenever the prosecution case depends ‘wholly or substa ntially ’on the correctness of one or more identifications of the defendant, and the defence alleges that the identifying witnesses are mistaken and in this case the prosecution substantially depends on the correctness on the identification of George. According to Shand v The Queen[27] the prosecution may argue that the Turnbull direction must be given where identification is based on recognition. Moreover, one witness Thomas already mistaken to identify George [28].But sometimes Turnbull is not required when a witness failed to recognize the suspect [29] and Thomas failed to recognize George.[30]In R v Forbes[31] it was held that the breach of Code D did not require the evidence to be excluded under section 78 of PACE. However , in this fact , Thomas failed to identify George[32].Moreover , George denied that he was involved in burglary[33].It could be argue that the identification procedure under Code D paragraph 3.12 is not necessary in this fact .In R v Turnbull[34] ,the Court of Appeal (CA) laid down guidelines for the treatment of the identification evidence where the case depends wholly or substantially on the correctness of the identifications. The guidelines make it clear that the judge should remind the jury of any weakness in the identification evidence and that the judge should withdraw the case from the jury unless there is any other evidence which will support the identification evidence and in this fact there is another witness named Harry who confirmed and recognized George[35] .In this fact it is highly likely that the prosecution will be able to argue that identification of evidence against George Smith is admissible. The next issues to be consider Adam King’s previous convictions for assault, robbery and burglary . Evidence of a witness’s bad character did not have to amount to proof of a lack of credibility on the part of the witness.[36] This question is concern with rules relating to the admissibility of defendants bad character and also the fairness of the changes made by CJA 2003. In this regard the Law Commission reports on bad character in 2002.[37] The common law recognized the way in which evidence of character could be relevant. It could make allegations against a defendant more likely be true but the trial should not be used to investigate the truth of a previous allegation. [38]Sec-101 of CJA 2003 states that in criminal proceedings evidence of defendants bad character is admissible if one of the factors from sub-section 101(1) (a)-101(1)(g) is satisfied [39].In this regard we need to consider the three fold test in R v Hanson[40]which is laid down by the Court of Appeal . In this case the propensity[41] to commit the offence is relied on as the basis for admitting evidence of a defendant’s bad character.[42] The prosecution now may argue that his previous convictions is relevant to an important matter in this trial[43] .But previous convictions for offences of the same description or category does not automatically mean that they should be admitted[44].Adam King’s bad character might be admissible by the courts as the defendant has a propensity to committee offences of this kind because a single previous conviction can be sufficient to establish propensity[45] .Moreover in Isichei[46]where the defendant’s propensity[47] to supply cocaine was relevant to the issue of identification. In this issue we need to discuss as to how should the judge direct the jury about George Smith’s character .In this fact George Smith already denied that he have any involvement in the burglary and he don’t even have any previous conviction .Similarly in R v Aziz[48] the house of Lords held that a person with no previous convictions was generally to be treated as being of good character[49] and in this fact it could argue that George have good character .Whenever a evidence of good character is given , its significance must be explained to the Jury .The Court of Appeal laid down two limbs in R v Vye[50]. In this fact it could easily argue that the judge will direct the jury based on the Vye direction about George’s character.However , there were some problems in Vye direction like if someone plead guilty in any other county then he is no longer of good character but in this fact it is already apparent that George don’t have any previous conviction .Moreove r ,in R v M (CP)[51] it was held that once the judge decided that the defendant should be treated as a person of good character then the full Vye direction on good character should be given as it is a matter of law .The prima facie rule of practice is to deal with this by giving a qualified Vye direction rather than no direction at all.[52] According to R v Doncaster[53] it can easily argue that if the defendant has no previous conviction but bad character evidence is given under the Criminal Justice Act 2003 then a modified direction should be given .From the above discussion it can easily argue that the judge in this scenario should direct the jury about George Smith’s character with Vye direction because it is the prima facie rule or practice.[54] Now we need to discuss the issue as to whether the persecution will be permitted to adduce the written statement[55] of Harry who is moving to New Zealand .From this issue it is apparent that we need to consider the statement as hearsay evidence which is defined as a statement made outside off the court with the purpose of showing that the statement is true.[56]But generally in criminal cases hearsay is inadmissible which is also affirmed by Lord Normand in Teper v R [57].Moreover in Myers v DPP[58] it was held that a contemporaneous record made by workers in a motor car factory of cylinder block and chassis numbers was held to be inadmissible hearsay.In this fact , we need to focus if the prosecution made a written statement from Harry then whether it will be admissible[59].In this scenario , Harry was outside of UK[60] and in relating with these sort of issue the Law Commission introduced a ‘reasonable practicability ‘ test which require the party wishing to adduce the evidence to make reasonable efforts to bring the witness to court but the court will take into account some factors such as the seriousness of the case and the importance of the information contained in the statement.[61]Moreover , in R v Castillio and Others [62] it was held that it was not reasonably practicable for the witness to attend and important consideration was given to the evidence given by the witness.The prosecution also argue that it falls within the exception of the general rule as the witness Harry moved outside of UK[63] and it was beyond reasonable doubt[64].From the above discussion it is highly likely that the prosecution will be able to adduce the written statement of Harry at the trial. Total Word Count = 3208 Bibliography: Primary sources: Text Book: Dennis .I.H , The Law of Evidence ,3rd Edition ,Sweet Maxwell 2007 Durston . G , Evidence Text Materials , 2nd Edition , Oxford University Press2011 Allen , C , Practical Guide to Evidence , 4th Edition, Routledge . Cavendish 2008 Choo , A.L-T , Evidence , 3rd Edition , Oxford University Press Spencer,J.R and Flin,R ,The Evidence of Children : The Law and the Psychology (2nd edition, Blackstone , London 2003) H.Phil , Blackstone’s Statutes on Evidence ,12th Edition 2012 Guidance for Vulnerable or Intimidated Witness , including children (â€Å"The Memorandum 2002) Spencer,J.R. and Flin , R , The Evidence of Children : The Law and the Psychology (2nd edition), Blackstone , London 2003 Emson, R. Evidence. (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010) fifth edition Munday, R. Evidence. (Oxford: Oxford University Press 2011) sixth edition Roberts, P. and A. Zuckerman Criminal evidence. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010) second edition Tapper, C. Cross Tapper on evidence. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010) twelfth edition Statute: Youth Justice and Criminal Evidence Act 1999 ( YJCEA) Criminal Justice Act 2003 European Convention of Human Rights the Coroners and Justice Act 2009 Code D of PACE 1984 Journals : The Law Commission report (2002) Ho, H.L. ‘Similar facts in civil cases’ (2006) 26 Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 131. Munday, R. ‘Case management, similar fact evidence in civil cases, and a divided law of evidence’ (2006) 10 International Journal of Evidence and Proof 81–103. Munday, R. ‘What actually constitutes evidence of â€Å"bad character’’’ Munday, R. ‘Single act propensity’ (2010) 74 The Journal of Criminal Law 127(reviews cases where the Crown has sought to adduce only single acts of misconduct, in order to ascertain how expansively or restrictively the courts interpret the bad character provisions). Redmayne, M. ‘Criminal evidence: The relevance of bad character’ (2002) 61 CLJ 684–714. Code of Practice for the Identification of Persons by Police Officers (Code D) of the Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984 (PACE). Devlin Report: ‘Evidence of identification in criminal cases’ (1976) Roberts, A. ‘Eyewitness identification evidence: procedural developments and the ends of adjudicative accuracy’ (2008) 6(2) International Commentary on Evidence. Ormerod, D. and D. Birch ‘The evolution of exclusionary discretion’ (2004) Crim LR 767. Article: The Law Commission (EVIDENCE OF BAD CHARACTER IN CRIMINAL PROCEEDINGS Report on a reference under section 3(1)(e) of the Law Commissions Act 1965 ) EVIDENCE LAW CHARACTER AND CREDIBILITY (February 1997 Wellington, New Zealand ) Bird.J , Plymouth Law and Criminal Justice Review (2014) Birch.D , ‘ A Better Deal for Vulnerable Witnesses?’[2000] Crim L.R 223 Creighton,P.’Spouse Competence and Compellability’[1990] Crim LR 34 Hoyano,L.C.H,’Striking a Balance between the Rights of Defendants and Vulnerable Witnesses : Will Special Measures Direction Contravene Guarantees of a Fair Trial?’ Hoyano,L.C.H,’Coroners and Justice Act 2009 :Special Measures Directions Take 2 : Entrenching Unequal Access to Justice’[2010] Crim LR 345 Durston,G ,’Bad Character Evidence and Non party Witnesses under the Criminal Justice Act 2003’ (2004) 8 E P 233 Goudkamp.J ,’Bad Character Evidence and Reprehensible Behaviour’ (2008) E P 116 Law Commission Consultation Paper ,’Evidence in Criminal Proceedings : Previous Misconduct of a Defendant’(CP 141) (London , 1996) Law Commission Report No 273 (Cm 5257),’Evidence of Bad Character in Criminal Proceedings’ (London , 2001) Mirfield,P ,’ Character , Credibility and Untruthfulness’(2008) 124 LQR 1 Spencer,J.R ,Evidence of Bad Character (Hart , London,2010) Byron (1999) The Times, 10 March and Gayle [1999] 2 Cr App R 130 David Ormerod’s commentary in [2011] Crim LR 10, 793–798 Dennis, I. ‘The right to confront witnesses: meanings, myths and human rights’ [2010] Crim LR 4, 255–74. Mirfield, P. ‘Character and credibility’ [2009] Crim LR 3, 135–51 Redmayne, M. ‘Recognising propensity’ [2011] Crim LR 3, 177–98 Munday, R. ‘Single act propensity’ [2010] J Crim L 74(2), 127–44 Law Commission No 245 , 1997 , para 8.39 Roberts, P. and A. Zuckerman, ‘Implied assertions and the logic of hearsay’ Birch, D. ‘Interpreting the New Concept of Hearsay’ (2010) CLJ 72. Common Laws: R v Hayes [1977] 1 WLR 234 R v MacPherson [2005] EWCA Crim 3605 R v Sed[2004] EWCA Crim 1294 R v D [2002] 2 Cr App R 36 R v K [2006] EWCA Crim 472 R v Powell [2006] EWCA Crim 3 R ( On the application of D ) v Camberwell Green Youth Court [2003] EWHC Admin 22 R v Gorja (Ranjit) [2010] EWCA Crim 1939 R v Forbes [2001] 1 All ER 686 Turnbull [1977] QB 224 Shand v The Queen [1996] 1 WLR 69, 72 R v Nicholson [2000] 1 Cr App R 182 Thornton [1995] 1 Cr App R 578 and Slater [1995] 1 Cr App R 584 R v Oscar [1991] Crim LR 778 Limburne and Bleasdale [1994] Crim LR 118. R v Caldwell [1993] 99 Cr App R 73 R v Hanson [2005] 1 WLR 3169 Tully and Wood (2007) 171 JP 25 R v McDonald[ 2007] EWCA Crim 1194. Isichei [2006] EWCA Crim 1815 R v Aziz [1996] AC 41 R v Vye(1993) 97 Cr App R 134. Teper v R [1952] AC 480 at 486 Myers v DPP [1965] AC1001 R v Castillio and Others [1996] 1 Cr App R 438 R v Bray [1988] 88 Cr App R 354 R v Acton Justices ex p McMullen 1990 92 Cr App R 98 Electronic Sources: www.lexisnexis.co.uk www.westlaw.co.uk www.gov.co.uk www.guardian.co.uk www.homeoffice.gov.uk/publications/police/operational-policing/pace-codes/pace-code-d-2011 www.officialdocumentsgov.uk/document/hc1011/hc08/0829/0829.pdf 1 [1] Section 56(1) (2) of the Youth Justice and Criminal Evidence Act 1999 [2] [1977] 1 WLR 234 [3] [2005] EWCA Crim 3605 [4] Section 53 (3) of the Youth Justice and Criminal Evidence Act 1999 [5] R v MacPherson [2005] EWCA Crim 3605 , [2006] 1 Cr App R 30 [6] [2004] EWCA Crim 1294 [7] [2002] 2 Cr App R 36 [8] Paragraph 45 – 46 where there is a danger that a complainant may be incompetent , the judge will usually before the trial have seen a video recording of the complainant’s interview with the police and so will be in some position to make a decision about competence after hearing submissions from prosecution and defence under Youth Justice and Criminal Evidence Act 1999 , section 27 [9] Section 53(1) 0f Youth Justice and Criminal Evidence Act 1999 [10] Section 23 of Youth Justice and Criminal Evidence Act 1999 and R v Brown [2004] EWCA Crim 1620 [11] Section 24 of Youth Justice and Criminal Evidence Act 1999 [12] Section 27 of Youth Justice and Criminal Evidence Act 1999 [13]Section 25 of Youth Justice and Criminal Evidence Act 1999 [14] Guidance for Vulnerable or Intimidated Witness , including children (â€Å"The Memorandum 2002) and it is also available in www.cps.gov.uk [15] Rv K [2006] EWCA Crim 472 , R v Powell [2006] EWCA Crim 3 [16] Section 16 ( 1 ) ( b) of YJCEA 1999 states that if the court considers that the quality of evidence given by the witness is likely to be diminished by reason of any circumstances falling within subsection ( 2 ) like section 16 ( 2 ) ( a ) states that the witness suffers from mental disorder within the meaning of Mental Health Act 1983 . [17] [2003] EWHC Admin 22 [18] Article 6 (3) ( a ) of ECHR states that everyone charged with a criminal offence has the following minimum rights: (a) to be informed promptly, in a language which he understands and in detail, of the nature and cause of the accusation against him; [19] Section 21 (1) ( a) of YJCEA 1999 states that a witness in criminal proceedings is a ‘child witness’ if he is an eligible witness by reason of section 16 ( 1 ) ( a) of YJCEA states that whether or not he is an eligible witness by reason of any other provision of section 16 or 17 of YJCEA [20] R v Camberwell Green Youth Court [2005] 1 WLR 393 [21] R v Powell [ 2006] 1 Cr App R 31 [22]Under section 21 (4C) of YJCEA 1999 the court will consider some factors such as (a) the child’s age and maturity , (b) the child’s ability to understand the consequence of giving evidence in a different way , (c) the relationship between the witness and the accused , (d) the child’s social and cultural background and ethnic origins and (e) the nature and alleged cir

Monday, January 20, 2020

Revolution :: Russian Revolution, Social Change

Throughout history, there have been many revolutions between people and their governments. People have always wanted change, whether it be social, economic, and/or political, for people wanted control over their lives, rather than being under the rule of a powerful government. For long periods of time people lived under the rule of a powerful government but eventually they could bear no more. The American revolution and the Russian revolution both had similarities and differences, however they had one cause, which was their independence from their government. In the Russian revolution, there were no foreign powers involved, it was between the people, and the noble monarchy, however during the civil war, the white army had allies, including England, America, and France, who supplied them with arms, food, clothes, and equipment (Thompson, 199). Tsar Nicholas II held power tightly, when Europe was moving away from monarchy. All land belonged to the Tsar family, and noble landlords, while factories belonged to capitilists. At this time in Russian history, there were no labor laws established for workers. The conditions of labor in Rural, and Urban environments, were very bad. Before the revolution, the justice system made all laws in favor the ruling elite, and capitolists. The peasents were obloged to paying large taxes to landlords. The majority of the Russian population was illiterate, poor, and had no access to upper education. Land ownership, and freedom of self-government were major proponents leading up to the Russian Revolution. After the war with Japan, anti-tsarist feelings greatly increased, for the soldiers wanted peace. WWI also increased anti tsarist feelings, for the people did not achieve anything from fighting, there were great losses on battle front, living conditions became worse, and soldiers did not receive any rights after returning from the battle. After the soldiers returned from consecutive wars, autocracy was not able to control the country, and the rich and noble were not able to maintain their power. The relationship between the average citizen, and the rich and noble, reached an unbearable state because, neither workers nor peasants had any rights, and they were not allowed to make any political decisions. After WWI, and the war in Japan, the people of Russia were yearning for change, and by February 1917 protests had out broken. Many women were chanting, instead of men, for the men were at war, and the women said â€Å"End the War!, â€Å"Down with the Autocracy!†, and â€Å"Give us bread† (Hacht, Hayes, 1).

Sunday, January 12, 2020

Kate Chopin, the Awakening

The Awakening by Kate Chopin 1st half: Page 1-60 Plot Summary: Leonce Pontellier and Edna Pontellier take their children to Grand Isle to spend their summer vacation. While on that trip Edna learns how to swim which becomes a huge revelation to her, in a sense of gaining some control over her life. Also Edna makes a great connection with Robert Lebrun, a charming man who pursues to obtain Edna's attention and affections.As he flees to Mexico, the narrative of the story shifts to Edna’s complexed feelings towards Robert and her search for social freedom. With the summer being over and Edna going back to New Orleans with her husband, Edna gradually re-evaluate her priorities and takes a more active role in her own happiness, as she starts to withdraw from some of the duties traditionally associated with motherhood and as a house-wife. Themes: * Self-destruction: The illusion of being able to control oneself, while being controlled by society and other circumstances around you wi ll eventually lead to self-destruction. Edna the protagonist is in search for social liberation, and fundamentally ends up self-destructing herself by taking an action she believes can only be controlled by herself. ) * Femininity: The restrictions and expectations put on a woman are purely on stereotypical and repressive images about a societally accepted idea of femininity. (In the era that Edna lived in, the gender roles were set in stone, men would work and women would be set to be home and take care of the kids and house, women like Edna were seen as possessions and trophies. * Identity: Dissatisfaction with the labels put on individuals can result in the loss of identity and the desire for independence outside of society. ( The discontent with the labels Edna has as ‘wife†, â€Å"mother† has resulted in the loss of her true identity, however the desire to gain back her identity leads her to social alienation and many controversies. ) Characters: * Edna Ponte llier: The protagonist of the novel, was described as â€Å"She was rather handsome than beautiful.Her face was captivating by reason of a certain frankness of expression and a contradictory subtle play of features. Her manner was engaging† (4). Wife of Leonce and a mother. Is presented as a complex and dynamic characters that develops throughout the story. Edna a very preserved individual who follows the attributes of society, develops quite aggressively from being a conserved young women to an individual who violets all of the morals that were set in her society. Robert Lebrun: A complex character who encounters himself in a love triangle with married woman, he plays a big part in Edna’s awakening. As he escapes to Mexico to flee from a relationship that was not allowed to happen, leading the novel to hit the climax of the story. * Leonce Pontellier: is described as â€Å"wore eyeglasses. He was a man of forty, of medium height and rather slender build; he stooped a little. His hair was brown and straight, parted on one side. His beard was neatly and closely trimmed. (1) Edna’s husband, Leonce plays a big part in the novel, he is a man who treats women as properties and values, very materialist and spends his time away from home doing business. Setting: * The Awakening is set in the late nineteenth century on Grand Isle, off the coast of Louisiana, where the summers are spent. It continues to New Orleans where Edna and her family live, in a relative luxurious house in the French quarters, â€Å"a very charming home [†¦] it was a large, double cottage with a broad front veranda, [†¦] the house was painted a dazzling white. (49) * Society in the nineteenth century was very repressed, women had to obey their husbands and duties, as Edna become more ‘awakened† and self-dependent, her society begins to isolate her. Literary Devices: * Children: The imagery and verbal illusion of children are present throughout the nove l. Edna is often symbolically seen as a child, her undergoing a form of re-birth as she sees the world from a fresh perspective. * Water: symbolic, water represents re-birth. Edna awakened while swimming where she realized that she could be the only one who can control her own movements. Birds: The caged birds symbolically represent Edna’s entrapment in society, as well as the women in the nineteenth century in general. â€Å"A green and yellow parrot, which hung in a cage outside. †(1) Other Critical Approaches: * Archetypal Approach (Metamorphosis/change): Edna undergoes a sudden but dramatic transformation, going from a conservative role to an independent woman. (As Edna obeys her husband and follows the rules of society, but transforms into a woman who goes by her own rules, and dismisses every task given to her. )

Saturday, January 4, 2020

Essay The Truth in the Lottery - 1338 Words

There are some things we as society will do without ever questioning why, for instance wishing on a shooting star into to get some good luck. Why do we do it? No one really has an answer for it, we just do. Traditions are something that is passed from generation to generation, even if we have no backing for what we do, we just know its â€Å"good† and its â€Å"tradition† so its apart of us. Shirley Jackson mocks our way of blindly following certain traditions. Characteristics of Jackson’s story create a parallel with Catholicism, by harping on our fear of change but our ability to manipulate what we want from our traditions and the basis of Catholicism’s belief of the innocence in children. Jackson uses friendly language among the villagers†¦show more content†¦By calling them young fools, Old Man Warner is criticizing them for changing something that has always been. For a character to know nothing but the Lottery for their whole life, ch anging something as big as thing tradition could be dire to their civilization. With the Catholic religion, it has been active for decades. Whether you are Catholic or not is passed through generations of families. When Catholicism is brought up through a family, children start going to church when they are very young, getting baptized and receiving their first communion all before they learn the age of 10. Through talking with many atheists/agnostics from Catholic families their stories all end the same. People get verbally crucified for not following in their religious tradition. Old Man Warner calling them â€Å"young fools† does exactly that, criticizes a village because of what they have stopped following. This draws a parallel for people’s fear of change. Families fear that their child’s world will completely change due to their lack of faith while Old Man Warner and other community members believe that their town will go to waste with out the Lot tery. The story itself is very detailed. Shirley Jackson gives the reader a lot of information about the lottery and brings up very interesting points. Jackson states that: At one time, some people remembered, there had been a recital of some sort, performed by the official of the lottery†¦ someShow MoreRelatedThe Truth Uncovered: The Lottery by Shirley Jackson616 Words   |  2 Pageswith big problems is a great way to describe the kind of town used as a setting in â€Å"The Lottery†. The town is a covered up mess and consists of horrible, low-down events. For example, some member of the town just cold-heartedly devoured a member of their own community. It all began when the villagers of the small town gathered together in the town square on a beautiful, sunny day for the town’s annual lottery. The author of this short story, Shirley Jackson, is an American author from San FranciscoRead MoreIrony In The Lottery By Shirley Jackson1436 Words   |  6 PagesTh e lottery was authored by a renowned and most celebrated literature icon among his peers during his time and beyond; one Shirley Jackson, and the text would be first published in 1948 the 26 of June (Jackson 110). The storyline is told following a literal trajectory of a cultural performance in a remote setting, known as the lottery. The author of this text describes a chain of themes in his work, and they include; tradition and customs, society and class, as well as family setups and hypocrisyRead MoreThe Lottery By Shirley Jackson925 Words   |  4 PagesIn â€Å"The Lottery†, written by Shirley Jackson, Jackson uses the third person objective point of view to narrate the story of a small unnamed town – presumably during the early Twentieth century – that practices a dark event annually. True to the fly-on-the-wall description of third person, the narrator of the story details the events unfolding from an objective and unbiased point of view, almost as if he or she is watching the entire scene from the outside. Jacksons’ choice of narration is an effectiveRead MoreThe Lottery by Shirley Jackson Essay987 Words   |  4 PagesThe Lottery By: Shirley Jackson Summary: The Lottery happens in June every year in a small village of about 300 people. Its a tradition held annually for well over 80 years and Mr. Summers who oversees several civic activities in the community like square dances, teenage club, and the Halloween program as well as the Lottery. The Lottery normally starts around ten oclock in the morning and is finished around noon, the townspeople gather at the center of the town. A small old blackRead MoreAnalysis Of The Book The Lottery By Edgar Allan Poe970 Words   |  4 Pageslike Shirley Jackson, who was an American writer as well. Her stories were horrifying, but truth-telling. The kind that parents would find disturbing and would not want their children to be reading. Shirley just wrote books that explained life, she made people see the truth in others. She wanted to see the capacity that humans had for evil. Her stories were mainly about the reality of life and its horrific truths. Throughout her times she had receive d numerous awards, Edgar Allan Poe Award had been justRead MoreAnalysis Of The Poem The Colonel By Carolyn Forche, The Play `` And `` The Lottery ``1220 Words   |  5 Pagescan come up with a presentation of how justice is displayed in our society. This paper will discuss the topic of justice as presented differently in the poem â€Å"The Colonel† by Carolyn Forche, the play. â€Å"No Crime† by Billy Goda, and the story â€Å"The Lottery â€Å"by Shirley Jackson. In the poem â€Å"The Colonel† by Carolyn Forche, the narrator is acting as a witness in a case where the colonel is a victim. The theme right to justice seems to be the author’s objective for composing the poem. From the poemRead MoreThe Lottery Essay1133 Words   |  5 Pagesbeginning of Shirley Jackson’s short story â€Å"The Lottery,† the village congregates in the square on the â€Å"clear and sunny† (247) midsummer day of June 27th. The children are out of school, the flowers are blooming, and the grass is a vibrant green. Ursula K. Le Guin’s short story â€Å"The Ones Who Walk Away From Omelas,† begins on â€Å"the Festival of Summer,† (242) which includes processions, dancing, singing, bells, and horses. Although the village in â€Å"The Lottery† and the city of Omelas appear pleasant andRead MoreThe Use of Selective Exposition in The Lottery, by Shirley Jackson1315 Words   |  6 PagesA typical story is litter ed with details, explaining the history of the world the story takes place in, who the characters in the story are, all the while remaining correlated to the plot and subplots that drive the story forward. The story The Lottery by Shirley Jackson however does not follow these conditions, as the reader is left to interpret a majority of the story on their own as it progresses. Jackson is not the only writer to incorporate a style of selective exposition in their work; RaymondRead MoreAnalysis Of The Lottery 1036 Words   |  5 PagesSince reading The Lottery by Shirely Jackson, I’ve been thinking more about culture, traditions, and perspective. Not just that, but how it can sometimes take adopting an unbiased, non judgmental, or outside perspective in order to see things for what they really are. The way that the narrator in this story adopts such a position allows for a clearer view of the events of the story. In The Lottery, the narrator speaks to us in a non participant and objective manner. We hear and see events unfoldRead MoreThe Lottery By Shirley Jackson981 Words   |  4 Pagesâ€Å"The Lottery† by Shirley Jackson artfully uses foreshadowing in order to build suspense and create a shocking ending. Jackson’s success in â€Å"The Lottery† comes from her ability to keep the reader in the dark about the evils, until the very end. She has masterfully set up what the reader believes as a pleasant event. But, it is not until the ending, can the reader see the foreshadowing of the evils to come. Through the use of foreshadowing, Jackson is able to contribute to the story s overall effect

Thursday, December 26, 2019

My Internship At The Richland County Public Defenders...

Introduction My internship is at the Richland County Public Defender’s Office and I work directly with two juvenile defense attorneys. My office is at the Richland County Judicial Center. This position is very new and I am the second person to have this internship at USC, so defining my position is very complex. I do not have an on-site social work supervisor to turn to when I have questions, so, I have to figure out a lot of things on my own. Being that I work directly with the attorneys, a lot of things I see on the daily are on the legal side and not the social worker side per se. However, the attorneys involve me in the entire process when working with each client to provide a social work perspective to better help the clients and increase the quality of their services. Some of my duties involves researching client information, searching for services and resources for the clients and families, examining IEPs for the attorney and clients, visiting clients while they are in secure locati ons, attending interagency staffing for clients, advocating for clients and the services they need, and many more tasks. Every day is different and provides multiple opportunities to meet with other professionals and clients. Clients’ Case Summary Since I started in August 2015, 100% of my clients have been Africa America teenage or youth adult males in Richland County of Columbia. All of them had or have some criminal charges against them: some are awaiting trial or hearings while in